Jie Gao is an assistant professor at the Department of Political Science, National University of Singapore. Her research examines contemporary government performance management reforms and their implications on public policy making and local governance, with a focus on the rise of the governance-by-targets regime in China. Her work in this area covers the political functions of performance management, target-based policymaking and implementation, bureaucratic gaming, and information politics. Her recent research explores bureaucratic gaming and China’s reform efforts to mitigate the consequences of gaming in a few key policy areas such as environmental protection, work safety regulation, social stability control, and emergency management. She is the author of Work Safety Regulation in China: The CCP’s Fatality Quota System (Routledge, 2022). Her academic articles appear in journals such as The China Quarterly, Public Administration, Policy and Society, Journal of Chinese Governance, American Review of Public Administration, Administration and Society, Public Performance and Management Review, etc. At the Harvard-Yenching Institute, she will conduct a project that examines the nexus between the rise of the governance-by-targets regime and the transformation of China’s socialist planning system.