Abstract: Using data from 30 educational systems, this study presents between-country differences in the prevalence and the duration of participation in mathematics and science tutorials after school. Gender, family socioeconomic background, academic performance, and urban-rural gap in school location are analyzed for correlations with participation in after school tutorials. Cross-nationally, Taiwan showed a very high percentage of long-term tutorial participation (over eight months during the last 12 months). Among Taiwanese eighth-graders, the distribution of tutorial participation is bimodal and M-shaped. That is, the two extremes, those who did not participate and those who had a long-term participation give rise to two modes, each has more than 40% of the students. For Taiwanese eighth-graders, tutorial participation and its duration are heavily influenced by family socioeconomic status and school location. The influence of family socioeconomic status on tutorial participation is laHUANG Min-Hsiung_A Cross-National Study of After School Tutorial Participation Among Eighth Gradersrger in Taiwan than in most other countries. In Taiwan, the rural-urban gap in tutorial participation is significant, especially in science. The proportion of Taiwanese students participating in after-school tutorials increased by 4 to 6 percentage points from 2015 to 2019.
Keywords: shadow education, family background, academic achievement, cross-national analysis, urban-rural gap, TIMSS
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